deals with the differences in neuronal activity of the brainstem during waking and REM sleep, and the hypothesis proposes that dreams result from brain activation during REM sleep. MCAT Physical Help » Biochemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Other Concepts » Physical Chemistry » Reaction Kinetics » Reaction Rate and Rate Laws Example Question #1 : Reaction Rate And Rate Laws If the reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction are gases, the reaction rate can be determined by measuring … When the mind makes a generalization such as the concept of tree, it extracts similarities from numerous examples; the simplification enables higher-level thinking. Base rate fallacy – making a probability judgment based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities. The generic information would relate to the prevalence of the … -illusion of invulnerability, self-censorship, stereotyping, etc. If a 3 kg change creates a just-noticeable difference starting at 5 kg, tripling the initial mass (now 15 kg) will require triple the difference. Base Rate Fallacy occurs when a person misjudges the likelihood of an event because he or she doesn't take into account other relevant base rate information -base rate= likelihood of an event occurring out there in the world regardless of what the conditions of a particular situation may be They gave a number that reflected their confidence in their judgement. Pathway includes: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the connection between them is called the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The student falls to the base rate fallacy, where it is likely that previous knowledge about the prevalence of stroke victims is confounded by subsequent info about the high prevalence of strokes at the stroke centre. Base Rate Fallacy. Base rate neglect. -Predicts verbal abilities and reading comprehension even though the subject is solving a math problem. The best way to explain base rate neglect, is to start off with a (classical) example. A cheating detection system catches cheaters with a 5% false positive rate. This article explains its statistical basis and looks at real-life examples. 1. behavior characterized by showing virtually no signs of emotion or affective expression, ability to quickly identify relationships and connections, and then use those relationships and connections to make correct deductions, a long projection from the hippocampus that connects to other nuclei in the limbic system, a portion of the cerebral cortex that controls motor processing, executive function, and the integration of cognitive and behavioral processes, the inability to identify uses for an object beyond its usual purpose, a theoretical framework that explains how parts of society fit together to create a cohesive whole, a model that explains social interaction and decision-making as a game, including strategies, incentives, and punishments, collections of neuron cell bodies found outside the central nervous system, theory that distinguishes between two major types of groups: communities, which share beliefs, ancestry, or geography; and societies, which work together toward a common goal, ways for the brain to infer missing parts of a picture when a picture is incomplete, the tendency toward decisions that are more extreme than the individual inclinations of the group members, the tendency for groups to make decisions based on ideas and solutions that arise within the group without considering outside ideas and ethics; based on pressure to conform and remain loyal to the group, a sudden increase in response to a stimulus, usually due to a change in the stimulus or addition of another stimulus; sometimes called resensitization, a decrease in response caused by repeated exposure to a stimulus, a cognitive bias in which judgments of an individual's character can be affected by the overall impression of the individual, a rule of thumb or short-cut that is used to make decisions, occur when going to sleep; seen in narcolepsy, occur when awakening from sleep; seen in narcolepsy, In Freudian psychoanalysis, the part of the unconscious resulting from basic, instinctual urges for sexuality and survival; operates under the pleasure principle and seeks instant gratification, memory that does not require conscious recall; consists of skills and conditioned behaviors, a theory that states that people tend to associate traits and behavior in others, and that people have the tendency to attribute their own beliefs, opinions, and ideas onto others, the number of new cases of a disease per population at risk in a given period of time; usually, new cases per 1000 at-risk people per year, a measure of reproductive success; depends on the number of offspring an individual has, how well they support their offspring, and how well their offspring can support others, one person discriminating against a particular person or group, a form of cognition that utilizes generalizations to develop a theory, an impression management strategy that uses flattery to increase social acceptance, behavior that is genetically programmed or instinctive, the tendency of animals to resist learning when a conditioned behavior conflicts with the animal's instinctive behaviors, discrimination against a particular person or group by an entire institution, numerical measurement of intelligence, usually accomplished by some form of standardized testing, a technique of observing and immediately classifying the activities of small groups, old information causes difficulty learning new information, new information interferes with older learning, a theory of emotion that states that a stimulus results in physiological arousal, which then leads to a secondary response in which emotion is consciously experienced, the cognitive bias that good things happen to good people, and bad things happen to bad people. 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