The Civil War ended five months after Sherman marched into Savannah. Gen. Charles C. Walcutt arrived to stabilize the defense, and the division of Georgia militia launched several hours of badly coordinated attacks, eventually retreating with about 1,100 casualties (of which about 600 were prisoners), versus the Union's 100. ", "Scalawags and Scoundrels? There were approximately 3,100 casualties, 2,100 of which were Union soldiers, and the countryside took years to recover. Reply. [13], Sherman telegraphed to President Lincoln, "I beg to present you as a Christmas gift the City of Savannah, with one hundred and fifty heavy guns and plenty of ammunition and about twenty-five thousand bales of cotton. As a result, the rebels pushed their limits: there was a steep rise in guerrilla warfare on the part of Confederate civilians. Grant ordered him to “clear the country” ahead of him and to form black regiments when he had encountered enough former slaves (he didn’t do this). I know that this recent movement of mine through Georgia has had a wonderful effect in this respect. On December 20, he led his men across the Savannah River on a makeshift pontoon bridge. The March William T. Sherman to the Sea, the most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War (1861-65), began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. But what next? Rail depots, roundhouses, arsenals, and warehouses were torn down and the combustible materials then destroyed by controlled fires. He is the author of "The Everything American Presidents Book" and "Colonial Life: Government. "[24] David J. Eicher wrote that "Sherman had accomplished an amazing task. The March to the Sea was the culmination of Union General William T. Sherman's 1864 campaign during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and was a devastating example of "total war." Sherman's March to the Sea: 150 years later, its legacy has many stories to tell Sherman's bummers (foragers) in S.C. (Library of Congress) ... At the beginning of the march in May 1864, the outcome was uncertain and the tide could have shifted back in favor of the South. Foraging parties may also take mules or horses to replace the jaded animals of their trains, or to serve as pack-mules for the regiments or brigades. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta, on November 15 and ended with the … Sherman thought the Confederates would likely fortify and defend both cities, so he planned to drive his army southeast between them, destroying the Macon-Savannah Railroad along his way to occupy Savannah. Maj. Gen. John G. Foster dispatched 5,500 men and 10 guns under Brig. Had McClellan won, General Sherman’s march through Georgia would surely have come to an end. By moving in Lee's rear, Sherman could possibly increase pressure on Lee, allowing Grant the opportunity to break through, or at least keep Southern reinforcements away from Virginia. Relevance. We stood upon the very ground whereon was fought the bloody battle of July 22d, and could see the copse of wood where McPherson fell. Smith's 1,500 Georgia militiamen, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Grahamville Station, South Carolina. The March William T. Sherman to the Sea, the most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War (1861-65), began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. Nazi Germany 7. Reply Delete. According to historian Jacqueline Campbell, the enslaved people often felt betrayed, as they “suffered along with their owners, complicating their decision of whether to flee with or from Union troops.” A Confederate officer cited by Campbell estimated that of some 10,000 enslaved people who trailed along with Sherman’s armies, hundreds died of “hunger, disease, or exposure,” as the Union officers took no actions to help them, (Campbell 2003). On the strength of this, he began his famous "March to the Sea" in which he destroyed immense amounts of Confederate property and crops. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood was threatening Sherman's supply line from Chattanooga, and Sherman detached two armies under Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas to deal with Hood in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. The Nazis Exploited Sherman’s March to the Sea Lost Cause myths made their way into Hitler’s Germany . It confiscated 9.5 million pounds of corn and 10.5 million pounds of fodder, and destroyed uncounted cotton gins and mills. I do think most of the total war strategy was morally acceptable except the killing of innocent people. William Tecumseh Sherman leads the March to the Sea in 1864 The treatment of …show more content… The South would end up rejoining the Union as a crippled, angry population. I suppose it will be safer if I leave General Grant and yourself to decide. Were there any significant turning points in Sherman's march to sea? He had defied military principles by operating deep within enemy territory and without lines of supply or communication. Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman's March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. In a letter written home in 1862, he told his family that the only way to defeat the south was as he had defeated Indigenous groups—by destroying their villages. According to Sherman’s own estimates, his armies seized 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 13,000 head of cattle in addition to confiscating 9.5 million pounds of corn and 10.5 million pounds of livestock fodder. Please make my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, officers and men. He felt that this Shermans capture of Atlanta. What was the total outcome of this battle? 17 Comments Add yours. Smith … After reading about Shermans march to the sea in 1864 i do fell his strategy was necessary if he did not use his total war than the south might have ended up winning the war the only way to defeat them was to use total war. Sherman had accomplished his mission. Sherman’s obliteration of the South in his march to the sea was uncalled for and against the very purpose of the war. Kilpatrick was ordered to make a feint toward Augusta before destroying the railroad bridge at Brier Creek and moving to liberate the Camp Lawton prisoner of war camp at Millen. Standard histories of Major General William T. Shermans celebrated March to the Sea invariably portray the Confederacys response as inconsequential. This story originally appeared on June 30, 2016. Abandoning Atlanta's railhead and telegraph lines was a high-risk operation. Sherman sent two of his army corps to reinforce Federal forces in Tennessee. Union General Sherman’s scorched-earth March to the Sea campaign begins. 1. dianne on August 20, 2010 at 10:29 am . Through his March to the Sea, he became the first general in the nineteenth century to use total war against an opponent. "[32] W. Todd Groce, the president of the Georgia Historical Society, stated that the "hard war" practiced by Sherman did not prefigure the "total war" practiced in World War II. It seized 5,000 horses, 4,000 mules, and 13,000 head of cattle. Slaves' opinions varied concerning the actions of Sherman and his army. [23] Military historians Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones cited the significant damage wrought to railroads and Southern logistics in the campaign and stated that "Sherman's raid succeeded in 'knocking the Confederate war effort to pieces'. But instead, just days after the election, Sherman took his men on one of the ambitious and risky campaigns of the war, cutting loose from his supply line to cut a sixty-mile swath through to the sea. How should the actions of these men be remembered and judged? Poe oversaw the burning of Atlanta, for which action he was honored by Sherman. 179, Sherman's March to the Sea 1864, author David Smith describes Sherman's campaign across Georgia and Hood's campaign across Tennessee in late 1864. Sherman … Answer Save. On December 17, he sent a message to Hardee in the city: I have already received guns that can cast heavy and destructive shot as far as the heart of your city; also, I have for some days held and controlled every avenue by which the people and garrison of Savannah can be supplied, and I am therefore justified in demanding the surrender of the city of Savannah, and its dependent forts, and shall wait a reasonable time for your answer, before opening with heavy ordnance. This story originally appeared on June 30, 2016. Free state. On December 13, William B. Hazen's division of Howard's wing stormed the fort in the Battle of Fort McAllister and captured it within 15 minutes. Wheeler and some infantry struck in a rearguard action at Ball's Ferry on November 24 and November 25. Now, the undertaking being a success, the honor is yours; for I believe none of us went further than to acquiesce. How did shermans march to the sea contribute to the outcome of the civil war? By laying waste to the rich farmland of Georgia, that provisioned the Confederate armies, reducing them to starvation. Sherman, commanding the Military Division of the Mississippi, did not employ his entire army group in the campaign. It also reduced the ability of the Confederacy to wage war at the level that it had been. Confederate hopes in 1864 hinged on frustrating Union forces in the field and forcing Abraham Lincoln out of office in the November elections. Sherman had decided, though, that he had to crush the will of white Southern civilians if the Union were to bring the rebels to heel. The Moral and Legal Dimensions of Sherman's Last Campaigns. History >> Civil War General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. ", John Bennett Walters, "General William T. Sherman and total war. Sherman's armies reached the outskirts of Savannah on December 10 but found that Hardee had entrenched 10,000 men in favorable fighting positions, and his soldiers had flooded the surrounding rice fields, leaving only narrow causeways available to approach the city. Former Southern Brigadier General Clement A. Evans asserted, for example, that there was no force available to obstruct Shermans soldiers. VI. WIB history April 18, 2018 Robert Beckhusen. Favorite Answer. How Confederate myths made their way into Hitler's Germany. Promoted by Sherman by two steps in rank to colonel after the fall of Savannah, he continued in that capacity in the war's concluding Carolinas Campaign as Sherman headed northwards from Savannah to link up with Grant and the Army of the Potomac in Virginia and to cut another swath through South and North Carolina. [21] The Army wrecked 300 miles (480 km) of railroad and numerous bridges and miles of telegraph lines. In short, the March to the Sea demonstrates not that Sherman was a brute, but that he wanted to wage a war that did not result in countless deaths. Sherman recounted in his memoirs the scene when he left at 7 a.m. the following day: ... We rode out of Atlanta by the Decatur road, filled by the marching troops and wagons of the Fourteenth Corps; and reaching the hill, just outside of the old rebel works, we naturally paused to look back upon the scenes of our past battles. Sherman’s March to the Sea devastated Georgia and the Confederacy. Iowa State University thesis, 2011. Sherman’s so-called “scorched earth policies” remain controversial, with many Southerners still detesting his memory. On December 4, Kilpatrick's cavalry routed Wheeler's at the Battle of Waynesboro. Some of the 134 Union casualties were caused by torpedoes, a name for crude land mines that were used only rarely in the war. In May 1864, Sherman … Sherman's decision to operate deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major campaigns of the war, and is considered by some historians to be an early example of modern total war. By early September and the end of most fighting around Atlanta, the outcome was pretty clear. History >> Civil War General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. While Howard's wing was delayed near Ball's Bluff, the 1st Alabama Cavalry (a Federal regiment) engaged Confederate pickets. It hurt morale, for civilians had believed the Confederacy could protect the home front. Mark E. Neely rejects the notion that the Civil War was a "total war. V. To army corps commanders alone is entrusted the power to destroy mills, houses, cotton-gins, &c., and for them this general principle is laid down: In districts and neighborhoods where the army is unmolested no destruction of such property should be permitted; but should guerrillas or bushwhackers molest our march, or should the inhabitants burn bridges, obstruct roads, or otherwise manifest local hostility, then army commanders should order and enforce a devastation more or less relentless according to the measure of such hostility. The Battle of Griswoldville: An Infantry Battle on Sherman's March to the Sea av Jones, Robert C.: Love him or hate him, the actions of William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia in 1864 transformed the Civil War in the space of seven months. I can make the march and make Georgia howl.” He wanted to not only damage the South’s capacity to make war, but also to inflict psychological damage as well. During the campaign, the Confederate War Department brought in additional men from Florida and the Carolinas, but they never were able to increase their effective force beyond 13,000.[8]. Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman invaded Georgia from the vicinity of Chattanooga, Tennessee, beginning in May 1864, opposed by the Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston. To be successful with this task, students should have learned previously about traditional military tactics employed before and during the first half of RH.6-8.2 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. Sherman's March to the Sea (1864–65).After capturing Atlanta in September 1864, a victory that guaranteed the reelection of Abraham Lincoln and the continuation of the Civil War, Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, Union commander in the west, turned his thoughts to the most direct assault he could imagine on the heart of the Confederacy, one that targeted Southern morale. 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